Role Models, Glass Cliffs and Marissa Mayer: Should women be managing “as women” or “like men”?
Increasingly, a great deal of media coverage and public discussion focuses on the growing number of women in senior corporate positions. Women such as Sheryl Sandberg, COO of Facebook, and Marissa Mayer, CEO of Yahoo, have become renowned public figures whose success is held as an example of how far women have come in their struggle for gender equality. They are seen to have shattered the glass ceiling.
Whilst this success shouldn’t be belittled, there remain problems with the media’s portrayal of these senior women as well as the criticism of their decisions and practices that outpaces those directed at their male counterparts. The hyper-visibility of these women and the attention surrounding their success have created high (feminist) expectations and heavy criticism when they fall short. This raises the question: Why do we assume that as successful and powerful women, they stand for gender equality? Why do we imbue these women with role model status, and how helpful is it to do so?
Having broken through the “glass ceiling”, Mayer and Sandberg now exist on a “glass cliff” (Ryan and Haslam 2005): a precarious place where they are hyper-visible and constantly scrutinised. In some cases this criticism is of their ability as women to do “men’s jobs”, but feminists reprimand them too. Whilst being held up as feminist icons, they are simultaneously knocked for a lack of commitment to gender diversity, or for being ‘bad’ role models, and are somehow expected to be representative of all women.
Mayer in particular has come under scrutiny for ‘banning’ her employees at Yahoo from working from home. This is seen to particularly disadvantage parents (read: women) and make the work/life balance impossible for her (female) employees. What is striking about the debate in media and public discussion is the surprise and outrage that Mayer “as a woman”, could implement this policy. Despite Mayer being first and foremost a CEO of a Silicon Valley company, she is expected to make her business decisions according to what would best suit her (female) employees, simply because she is a woman. Why is it assumed that successful women should be concerned about gender equality, rather than getting the most from their employees? Additionally, given that women’s success in organisations is often dependent on their becoming more like their male counterparts (Wajcman 1999) and that at the top of organisations there is much less difference in management style between men and women (Rutherford 2002), why do we expect senior women to behave “as women”?
Female role models are very influential on women’s career development and their importance cannot be overstated. Women are underrepresented in positions of power and senior roles, and a lack of good role models is often cited as a barrier to their success (see for example Catalyst and Opportunity Now 2000). This leads to a ‘chicken and egg’ dilemma as more women are needed to be role models, but they don’t get there because of the lack of visible senior women. Yet the problem with this argument is that it assumes women in senior positions will always be ‘good’ role models, and that they have an obligation to be so. In a recent study by Kelan (2012) into the experiences of young professional women, many felt that female role models presented to them were ‘not right for them’ due to their having different experiences and priorities. Sealy and Singh (2009) argue that women choose their role models ‘affectively’; according to their emotional connections, and the need to feel an affinity with the role model for the relationship to be beneficial. Whilst women like Mayer and Sandberg may offer an example of success and give hope for other women, in reality their path to success is not one that will always be open to women of different economic, social and/or ethnic backgrounds. However, we also have to question why we place extra (feminist) expectations upon successful women, and assume that they should and will be perfect role models, in addition to their day job.
References and further reading
Belkin, L. “Marissa Mayer’s Work-From-Home Ban Is The Exact Opposite Of What CEOs Should Be Doing”, The Huffington Post, 23rd February 2013.
Catalyst and Opportunity Now (2000) Breaking the Barriers: Women in Senior Management in the UK. London: Business in the Community.
Kelan. E. (2012) Rising Stars, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.
Purcell, D., MacArthur, K. R. and Samblanet, S. (2010), Gender and the Glass Ceiling at Work. Sociology Compass, 4: 705–717
Rutherford, S. (2002). Any difference? An analysis of gender and divisional management styles in a large airline. Gender, Work & Organization, 8(3), 326-345.
Ryan, M. K. and S. A. Haslam (2005). “The glass cliff: Evidence that women are over‐represented in precarious leadership positions.” British Journal of Management 16(2): 81-90.
Sealy, R. And Singh, V. (2010) ‘The importance of role models and demographic context for senior women’s work identity development’, International Journal of Management Reviews, 12 (3), 284-300.
Wajcman, J. (1998). Managing like a man: Women and men in corporate management. Polity Press in association with Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Great post, Scarlett! I think you draw out an important tension. We can’t simply assume that promoting women to higher level positions will fix gender inequality throughout the workplace. Women who are successful and placed on the glass cliff have often gotten to this position by employing traditionally masculine tactics that undermine equality. But, at the same time, it is probably counterproductive to scrutinize these women.
I wonder how we can avoid this scrutiny and if you have read or examined any ways to promote successful women role models without falling into this trap.
I totally agree, and I am reluctant to place further criticism on successful women, it is as you say completely counterproductive.
Iuation is unique. I almost resent the ‘having it all’ notion as unrealistics. think the role model issue is a huge one – An example I left out of this piece was Helena Morrissey, who was actually the inspiration for the piece – she is extremely successful in business, committed to gender equality, AND has 9 children. In some ways she is an excellent role model, and yet in others I know that her situation is unique. There are all sorts of layers of financial, situational and educational privilege that often get left out of the discussion and the fact that she is a ‘successful woman’ is enough to qualify her for role model status.
I realise that is more of a ramble that an answer – I think maybe I am calling for realistic role models for young woman, and ones they can relate to. This may also mean piecemeal role models are necessary. Most importantly though I don’t think we should forget that men can be role models too, and definitely have a role to play in mentoring and sponsoring. Otherwise all we do is put extra layers of responsibility onto already overworked senior women, to support women below them.